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Gleason Score

Gleason Score

Gleason Score

Gleason Score

Analyzing prostate cancer means that doctors require a categorical scoring system; this helps them to determine the overall health of the prostate gland and determine the presence and severity of prostate cancer.

What is the Gleason Score?

The Gleason Score, as it is referred to, will help to ensure that physicians are aware of the prostate cancer’s stage.  The prostate is a “walnut sized” (in actuality, kiwi-sized) gland, located near the bladder.  Utilizing the Gleason Score will enable the physician to make an accurate decision call on management options, and the possibility of a cure for the patient’s prostate cancer.

The whole process of precisely judging the operation is an effort among the urologists and the pathologists. It needs accurate assessment during the biopsy and the accurate classification of the biopsy. This relies on a clear understanding of all the issues. To properly understand the tumor’s Gleason Score, the pathologist and the urologist must be precise, or the consequences may be unfavorable.

The Scoring Process:

This tumor scoring system is based upon microscopic tumour patterns that are measured by the pathologist, based on a prostate biopsy.  The pathologist should accurately read the transparencies and control scores of the tumor. This requires accurate assessment on the pathologist’s part; misinterpretation of the results may result in an incorrect analysis.

This system is clearly subjective by nature. In other words, it is all in eye of the beholder. This is not the sole limitation of this system; there are also others. For instance, not every pathologist has the similar ability or knowledge in judging the Gleason grade and therefore, the outcomes for the similar biopsy read by two dissimilar pathologists can be diverse. Also, the minor needle biopsies occasionally do not give a precise account of the tumor itself.

The Gleason Score may be between 2 to 10. Several markers are observed, and then, additional ones are added for a final sum. (The Gleason score and the Gleason sum are same.) The score is resolute by primary Gleason grade and the secondary Gleason grades, which will then be added composed to get  Gleason score.

• Grade 1: the cancerous tissue will closely resemble the normal tissue

• Grade 2: tissue which still has well advanced structures, such as the glands; though they are also much larger and also the tissues are present amongst them.

• Grade 3: tissue still has the recognizable glands; though, the cells are dimmer

• Grade 4: the tissue has hardly any glands which are identifiable

• Grade 5: there are no identifiable glands in the tissue

As the grade increases, the diagnosis becomes poorer. Certain alternatives to the Gleason Score could have been planned – though, it is still the prevalent scoring system for prostate cancer tumors.

Estrogen and Prostate Cancer

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Estrogen and Prostate Cancer

How early exposure to estrogen can result in prostate cancer later on in life.

 

Artificial compounds found in the environment may be able to mimic the hormonal action of estrogens. These compounds are known as xenoestrogens and are widespread in our environment. One such compound that has received a lot of press years is BPA, also known as the bisphenol A. is used to manufacture of epoxy resins and plastics. More than 1 1/2 million pounds of BPA is produced annually in the United States alone. BPA can leach from plastics – even plastics which are not heated – and is found in human blood, fetal tissues and placental fluid in higher concentrations. Today most people in the Western world test positive for BPA contamination in their bodies.

A study from the University of Illinois and the University of Cincinnati exposed rats to a natural estrogen and to BPA during the developmental periods which were equivalent to the second and third trimester of human pregnancy. They found that the early exposure to these estrogens predisposed male rats to lesions – precancerous lesions, which could become malignant – of the prostate gland.

One of the study heads, the professor of urology at the University of Cincinnati, stated that “Most remarkably, early BPA exposure sensitized the prostate to precancerous lesions brought on by exposure of the adult animal to elevated estradiol,”

The study used the doses of BPA and the natural estrogen which are similar to those found in human serum. It is possible for bisphenol A to transfer from the mother to fetus, and male fetuses have been shown to have higher levels of BPA than female fetuses.

The study demonstrated that early exposure to BPA or other estrogens cause permanent damage of the methylation of particular stretches of DNA in the neonate’s prostate cells. The study concluded that environmental exposure to BPA or other estrogens can affect how genes express themselves during prostate development, and in doing so, can promote diseases the prostate gland, such as prostate cancer, as the individual ages.

“These findings are true for an animal model, and application to human prostate disease will await future studies,” the authors concluded.
Despite the author’s statement, the study is significant, since rats have a very similar physiology to that of human beings.

Lycopene, Tomatoes and The Prostate Gland

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Lycopene, Tomatoes and The Prostate Gland

Tomatoes contain powerful compounds that can benefit a man’s prostate gland.

Although the lycopene found in tomatoes carries many health benefits, new research suggests that other phytochemicals play as large, or larger of a role. This statement is based on research from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and published in the journal Nutrition Research.

The researchers fed male rats a diet which contained tomato powder for one month. Then, using analysis, determined which of the tomato compounds accumulated in the livers and prostate glands of the animals. Lycopene had accumulated – but phytoene and phytofluene and also accumulated in both the glands. Phytofluene was more concentrated in the liver than phytoene or lycopene were. In the prostate gland, lycopene had highest concentration followed by phytofluene and phytoene.

Lycopene is most recognized for the role that it may play in the prevention of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men in the United States of America, and and is the second most lethal form of cancer after lung cancer. Prostate cancer kills as many as 200,000 people globally every year. Approximately half 1 million new cases are diagnosed each year. Prostate cancer incidence has increased by approximately 1.7% over the last decade and a half.

In a Harvard study of over 40,000 men, investigators determined that men who consumed more than 10 servings of food containing tomatoes every day, such as tomato sauce and cooked tomatoes, had a statistically significant 35% lower risk of developing prostate cancer than men who ate the least servings of tomato-based food the greatest benefits to lycopene were demonstrated in man who had advanced stages of prostate cancer.

In another study, researchers examines the levels of lycopene found in the blood and determined that the risk of developing prostate cancer – in particular aggressive prostate cancer – actually decreased as blood lycopene levels increased. Men in the study who took a supplemental dose of 50 mg of lycopene each day had significantly higher levels of this compound in their blood. Researchers also found that high lycopene blood levels associated with a low PSA or prostate specific antigen score. High levels of PSA may be indicative of prostate cancer. (Please note: if you have a high PSA score, do not assume that you have prostate cancer. There are other causes of high PSA level; see your doctor.)

Although raw, unprocessed foods increased in popularity, the greatest benefits of lycopene may be derived from tomatoes which have been processed. When tomatoes are processed the lycopene which is normally bound to the tomato’s cell structure is released.

Saw Palmetto

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Saw Palmetto

Can saw palmetto keep the prostate gland healthy?

What is saw palmetto? How can this popular herb aid the prostate gland and improve a man’s overall health?

Saw palmetto is one of the primary herbs found in prostate health formulas. It enjoys great popularity in Europe because of his ability to reduce symptoms which are associated with an enlarged prostate gland, otherwise known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, or, BPH. In the United States, despite the popularity of pharmaceutical treatment options for prostate problems, saw palmetto is also seeing an increased usage among men.

Several recent studies have demonstrated that it can provide relief from the symptoms of BPH, as well as the symptoms of prosthetic inflammation and increased prostate cell proliferation, which may be indicative of prostate cancer. As an added benefit, some men have decreased their hair loss by utilizing saw palmetto.

Saw palmetto is a type of palm tree which naturally thrives in some of the southern states in the US. The therapeutically beneficial compounds are found in the berries of this plant. It has a historical usage as both an expectorant and antiseptic, and as a general tonic.

How does it work?

The primary mechanism of action by which saw palmetto works is by preventing the conversion of testosterone to DHT. It does this by inhibiting the 5-alpha reductase enzyme which is responsible for this conversion process. It can also block the cell membrane’s receptor sites from absorbing DHT. It is believed that excessive levels of DHT may contribute to both male pattern baldness and prostate problems.

The Journal of Urology reported that men with benign prostatic hyperplasia found significant, short-term, symptomatic relief when the user saw palmetto. The men in the study were between the ages of 4975, and all suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. The group was divided into two, with one group receiving saw palmetto supplementation, and the other receiving a placebo.

Reviews of studies which were published in Archivio Italiano di Andrologia concluded that the use of lycopene, selenium and saw palmetto can have a “dual action” effect on inflammatory conditions of the prostate gland as well as proliferative prostate disorders.

Meanwhile, another study, found in Anticaner Research found that saw palmetto extract cause a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on all the human malignant cells tested, when a saw palmetto extract was applied to hormone sensitive and insensitive breast cancer and prostate cancer cells, as well as the cells of lung and colon cancer.

This herb may be found in combination with others or alone. Men experiencing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia may wish to discuss the use of saw palmetto with their doctor.

Zinc and The Prostate Gland

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Zinc and The Prostate Gland

How does zinc benefit the prostate gland?

Zinc is a vitally important part of the male hormonal system. Some studies have demonstrated that a zinc deficiency may cause an enlarged prostate.

As men age – particularly after the age of 50 – their stored levels of zinc decline. This is a natural process, however, a deficiency in zinc can result in prosthetic enlargement. Other “male” problems may also result. The reason for this is that the prostate gland’s tissues contain high levels of zinc – higher than any other organ in the body – and when these stores of zinc are depleted, the integrity of the prostate gland is reduced. In addition, sufficient levels of zinc result in naturally lower levels of prolactin and estrogen, leading to a lower risk of prostate cancer or other prostate diseases, as well as improving mood and stamina.

Sufficient levels of zinc also prevents dihydrotestosterone, or “DHT”. Though some regard DHT as important substance in the body, excessive levels can result in prosthetic enlargement, baldness and even prostate cancer. It is important that men actually have their levels of DHT and testosterone checked to be certain about what may be causing their symptoms.

According to Irving Bush, a medical doctor, and the senior consultant at the Center for Study of Genitourinary Diseases in West Dundee, Illinois, the effect of zinc on enlarged prostate results in significant reduction in prostate size following a daily dose of between 50 and 100 mg over a period of two months.

A studyUniversity of Edinburgh Medical School in Scotland found that high supplemental doses of zinc caused an inhibition of the enzyme which turns testosterone into DHT.

Which foods naturally contain zinc?

One of the most potent vegetarian sources of zinc is pumpkin seeds. Using pumpkin seeds regularly can result in decreased urgency, frequency of urination, urinating in the night and dribbling urine – are all signs of an enlarged prostate. Another excellent food source of zinc is oysters. Please note: excessive amounts of zinc can lead to problematic mineral imbalances, toxicity and immune problems. Zinc can be a useful supplements, but please speak with your qualified healthcare practitioner before embarking on a high dose regime.

Pygeum Bark

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Pygeum Bark

Pygeum Bark – Can an extract of this African tree help the prostate gland?

What is pygeum bark?

Extracts from the bark of been used for more than four decades in countries such as Austria, Germany and France. The most common use of this bark is for the treatment of prostate enlargement. BPH, or, benign prostatic hyperplasia, is an enlargement of the prostate gland – a nonmalignant form – that most often affects men over the age of 60. Typical symptoms include waking up at night to urinate, and frequent urination. The greatest “side effects” of this condition is daytime sleepiness, since waking frequently at night results in poor sleep quality.

How does pygeum bark work? It contains a number of compounds which are regarded as being helpful for the health of the prostate gland. Found within the bark are plant estrogens, triterpenes, ferulic acids and beta sitosterol.

According to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration, pygeum bark extract can moderately improve the urinary symptoms which are associated with an enlarged prostate gland or an inflamed prostate gland. The report goes on to state that a number of human studies show that pygeum bark can significantly reduce hesitation before urination, the frequency of urination, painful urination and the number of times which male patients need to get out of bed and urinate, during the night. Despite these positive effects, the reports states that pygeum bark does not actually appear to decrease the size of the prostate gland, or to reverse benign prosthetic hyperplasia. It is interesting to note this, since other sources indicate that it does exactly that.

Pygeum bark may be most effective when it is combined with other natural therapies that include substances which can benefit the prostate gland. Such substances may include glycine, alanine and glutamic acid, what are all amino acids that are found in a healthy prostate gland. Also, the addition of supplemental zinc may be of benefit since the prostate gland contains a large amount of zinc – in fact, more than any other organ in the body. Zinc can also help support healthy testosterone levels, which is important for aging men.

Some herbs, such as saw palmetto and Nettle root have been demonstrated to improve the health of the male urinary system and the prostate gland, due to their abundant nutrients and trace minerals.  Men may wish to consider adding pygeum bark to their natural prostate health regimen.

High PSA

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High PSA

High PSA

What is the significance of a high PSA?

A high PSA (or, high prostate specific antigen) is a numerical “score”  of a protein which is produced by cells in the prostate gland.  Though detectable in all ages of men, at very low levels, the numbers rise when the prostate undergoes enlargement or prostatic inflammation.  The word “specific” is used to describe this protein because it is manufactured almost entirely by the prostate gland.

The PSA Test

This test is used by a health care practitioner to determine the levels of PSA (prostate specific antigen) circulating in the patient’s blood.  The test is simple; it is performed by drawing a small blood sample.  The blood is sent to a medical laboratory for analysis.  The levels of PSA are sent back to the health care practitioner, who then reports the numbers and their analysis to the patient.

Who needs to get a PSA Test?

A high PSA reading is more common is certain groups of men than others.  The following groups may be at greater risk of a high PSA and are the likeliest candidates for the PSA Test:

  • Those experiencing the symptoms of prostate cancer
  • Men over the age of 50, regardless of whether they are symptomatic or asymptomatic
  • Men over the age of 40, if they have high risk factors for prostate cancer, such as a familial history or being African American.
  • Those undergoing treatment for prostate cancer, since a high PSA – or lowering PSA – score can be used to monitor the progress of treatment.
By the time most men are 75, a PSA test may be less important than it would have been for them 25 years ago.  By this age, men are likelier to experience other diseases that can overtake prostate cancer.

What can cause a high PSA score?

Although prostate cancer is one of the causes of a high PSA, other, more common causes include:

  • Prostatic inflammation  (also known as prostatitis) is an inflammatory condition of the prostate gland, resulting from an infection, though other causes are possible.  Most of the time, prostatic inflammation is acute (not chronic), and “comes and goes” – though some men do experience chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.  If the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, antibacterial therapy can be effective.
  • BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia), also referred to as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a benign enlargement of the prostate gland.  It is extremely common among older men, and though a source of irritating symptoms, is not harmful and does not spread; it is not cancerous.
  • Having a prostate biopsy will usually causes high PSA levels, though the inflation is “artificial” and should not be used as a baseline level.  Physicians will normally take a PSA level test prior to a biopsy and wait 3 to 4 weeks after the biopsy to take another measurement.
  • Similarly, having a digital rectal examination can cause a temporary increase in PSA levels and levels immediately after such an examination should not be considered baseline.
  • Riding a bike, particularly if the seat presses on the prostate gland, can cause PSA levels to rise.
What should men with a high PSA level do?
Men should not panic.  Many factors can influence PSA levels, and though prostate cancer can be a cause, it is not the most common.  Patients should follow up with their physicians to ensure that the cause is found.  Even if prostate cancer is the cause of a high PSA level, early detection almost always ensures that prostate cancer is successfully treated and cured.  Should a man have an elevated PSA level, other tests, such as a digital rectal exam may be suggested to accurately assess what is causing the patient’s high PSA levels.

Prostatic Enlargement

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Prostatic Enlargement

Prostatic Enlargement

It is common for men to experience prostatic enlargement as they age.

As men grow older, the prostate gland undergoes two growth phases.  The first phase takes place in early puberty, as the prostate gland grows to twice its previous size.  The second phase takes place at approximately twenty five years of age.  This second phase of growth may result, years later, in prostatic enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Even though prostate growth continues for most of a man’s lifespan, prostatic enlargement seldom causes symptoms before the age of forty, yet it affects over half of men in their sixties, and over ninety percent of men in their eighties experience some BPH symptoms.

How Does It Happen?

When the prostate enlarges, a layer of surrounding tissue prevents its expansion, which makes the prostate gland press against the urethra, much like a clamp would were it attached to a hose (picture the urethra as the hose).  This results in thicker bladder walls and irritation.  Eventually, the bladder may contract even when hardly full, containing only small quantities of urine.  Over time, the bladder may weaken and become unable to empty itself, so some urine always remains in it.  These physiological manifestations of prostatic enlargement play a likely role in the symptoms of BPH.

Why Does It Happen?

Prostatic enlargement occurs for reasons which are not always understood.  There is no definitive information about risk factors in existence – though for hundreds of years, it has been acknowledged that BPH symptoms take place primarily in older men.  An interesting fact is that it doesn’t take place in men whose testicles were removed prior to puberty; these two observations have led experts to implicate both the aging process and testicular development in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Testosterone is a vital male hormone.  In addition to it, men produce much smaller amounts of estrogen, which is a female hormone.  However, as a man ages, their levels of “free” testosterone in the blood drop; this results in higher levels of estrogen.  According to some animal studies, the higher estrogen levels within the prostate gland may result in BPD due to the estrogen’s quality of promoting the growth of cells.

Dihydrotestosterone (or, “DHT”) is derived from testosterone in the prostate gland.  DHT may help control the growth of the prostate, and most animals lose the ability to produce dihydrotestosterone as they get older.  Yet, some studies suggest that regardless of a drop in testosterone levels, men’s DHT levels may not drop, and it continues to build up in the prostate, thus, this theory purports, promoting prostatic enlargement.

BPH Symptoms

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BPH Symptoms

 

BPH Symptoms

What Are The Most Common BPH Symptoms?

Benign prostatic hyperplasia may or may not produce any symptoms.  However, when symptoms are present, they may manifest in various forms, from mildly annoying, to painful, disruptive or serious.  Interestingly, the amount that the prostate is enlarged isn’t necessarily related to how severe the symptoms are.  In some cases, a slight prostate enlargement can result in extreme symptoms; and conversely, a greater prostate enlargement may result in very few symptoms.  As the result of emotional – or physical – stress, or cold weather, symptoms may worsen.

Aggravating Factors

BPH Symptoms can be worsened by the use of medications.  Some over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications, like diphenhydramine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine, sprays containing oxymetazoline – along with prescription medications such as testosterone, water pills, pain killers and antidepressants, can cause a worsening of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

BPH Symptoms

The commonest symptom of BPH involves trouble urinating, or holding urine.

Symptoms related to trouble urinating include the following:

  • Having a hard time starting the flow of urine (straining or hesitating)
  • Losing the strength of a urine flow (ie, the flow is weak)
  • Dribbling urine after urination
  • Frequent urges to urinate, even after emptying the bladder
  • Feeling pain during urination

Symptoms related to trouble holding urine include the following:

  • Waking up in the night to urinate
  • Urinating frequently
  • Experiencing an unstoppable urge to urinate

Though these signs are common BPH symptoms, it may not be the case that they are always related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.  In fact, the very symptoms of BPH may be somewhere between the two sets of symptom types listed above.  If symptoms manifest quickly, or are “one sided” (ie, more from one list above than the other), it may be that BPH is not the culprit.  Neurological problems,  heart failure, diabetes, prostatitis, prostate cancer or a UTI (urinary tract infection) may also be to blame – so be sure to check with your health professional to determine what the cause is, before assuming an issue “down there” is a BPH symptom.

Testosterone Levels In Men

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Testosterone Levels In Men

Testosterone Levels In Men

Are Testosterone Levels In Men Falling? What’s Normal? What Can Be Done?

What does it mean to be a man? Many things; but testosterone levels in men are one of the driving factors that make males, well, males.  This article will discuss testosterone, normal testosterone levels, and what can be done to increase it, as it seems to be dropping rapidly among the “modern male”. Testosterone is the primary androgen (male hormone), and plays a major role in men’s health (and at levels of about 1/10, in women’s health).  It’s mainly secreted by the testes, and is the main male sex hormone, and acts as an anabolic steroid.  It plays a vital role in developing male reproductive tissues, such as the prostate gland and the testicles, along with the promotion of secondary sexual characteristics, such as increased mass of bone and muscle, and body hair.  It also plays a major role in overall wellbeing, due to its influence on mood, motivation, sex drive and the prevention of osteoporosis. Testosterone’s Physiological Effects In Adolescents and Adults As a general rule, androgens such as testosterone promote the synthesis of protein and a growth of tissues which have androgen receptors (such as muscles).  Testosterone is virilizing and anabolic.  It increases the muscle and bone mass.

  • It causes muscle mass to increase and growth in muscle strength.  Bone density and strength is increased.
  • It causes sexual organs to mature, a deepening of the voice and growth of facial and body hair

In both post-natal males and females, the effects are generally dependent upon the levels and duration of free testosterone (which isn’t “bound up” and is therefore “free” and available to use). Some More Effects

  • Testosterone is vital for the development of normal sperm.
  • It regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis.
  • It maintains mental and physical acuity and energy.
  • It prevents muscle breakdown.
  • It increases libido and men and women (though women produce about 1/10 as much testosterone as men, they are more sensitive to it).
  • It does not produce negative effects on prostate cancer.
  • It may help to prevent heart disease by maintaining lean body mass and decreasing visceral fat and. cholesterol, and keeping up glycemic (blood sugar) control.
  • It may help to regulate the flight or fight response.
  • It may drop in men when they fall in love; some speculate this is to promote a temporary change of behavior between the sexes, allowing men to “nurture” more in case of conception.
  • It plays a major role in financial risk-taking.

Testosterone Levels In Men – What’s Normal? First let’s look at what can cause low testosterone levels in men.  Most doctors agree that men in their forties today have much lower levels of testosterone than men of the same age did fifty years ago.  This clearly points to a problem in both our environment and our diet.  In men, when testosterone is down, estrogen is probably up. Estrogen dominance can be problematic for both men and women.

  • Obesity/Extra Weight: Let’s face it; people, but especially those in the Western World, are getting fatter.  Blame it on desk jobs, high carb, high sugar, processed fat laden foods or whatever else, rapidly expanding waistlines are doing nothing good for men’s and women’s testosterone levels.  The reason is that fat cells contain aromatase, which converts testosterone into estrogen.  Therefore, the more fat there is, the more estrogen there is.  The ratio is altered.  Please consider losing some weight if you’re carrying too much of it.
  • Got Zinc? Zinc helps to keep levels of aromatase in the body down.  If there’s not enough zinc to go around, aromatase rises; and testosterone gets converted into estrogen.  Also, it’s a critical nutrient for the pituitary gland, which normally releases luteinizing and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) which causes the testicles to produce testosterone.  Zinc produces testosterone, and testosterone maintains zinc levels.
  • Live(r) The Life You Love: With an impaired liver, the excretion of hormones, chemicals, metabolic waste and drugs isn’t possible.  If these substances are building up instead of being excreted, hormonal levels can be imbalanced.
  • Beer: It doesn’t make you more of a man: Excessive intake of alcohol can affect the liver; as mentioned above, diminished liver function isn’t a good thing.  In addition, the consumption of alcohol causes a massive rise in levels of estrogen in women – and to a lesser extent, men.  Those who drink heavily have chronically elevated levels of estrogen.  In addition, the hops in beer which give it such a refreshing bitterness, have potent phytoestrogens in them.  The best advice? Don’t drink, or drink moderately.
  • Prescription Drugs: Some prescription drugs have side effects that can alter testosterone and increase the symptoms of andropause (“male menopause”).  For example, diuretic drugs can decrease levels of zinc, which is needed for testosterone production.

Normal testosterone levels in men fall between 250 and 800 nanograms of testosterone per deciliter.  The thing to remember, though, is that this is just a range.  If you are exhibiting some of the symptoms of low testosterone (low libido, weight gain, fatigue, apathy, osteoporosis, etc.), consider getting tested.  Explore treatment options, which range from hormone replacement therapy to a higher protein diet to weight bearing exercise to herbs that increase free testosterone levels.  Testosterone levels in men are influenced by many factors, and maintaining them at a healthy level is important.

Prostatectomy

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Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy

Prostatectomy Is The Surgical Intervention In Cases of Prostate Problems

A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure which removes all, or a part, of the prostate gland, to address abnormalities which may arise, such as an enlarged gland, or a tumor, which can cause a restriction in urine flow, among other problems.  There are a number of forms of prostatectomy.

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): A rectoscope with a viewing angle of thirty degrees and a resectoscopy sheath and element gets passed to the prostate, through the urethra, where the nearby tissue is removed.  This commonly used procedure addresses BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasica), with excellent rates of good outcome in eighty to ninety percent of patients.
  • Conventional (monopolar) TURP: The conventional version of the TURP procedure uses a wire loop which carries a monopolar electrical current through the resetectoscope, which cuts the tissue.  A grounding pad, and a fluid with non-conductive properties must be used to keep the electrical current from disturbing nearby tissue.  Unfortunately, the fluid used is usually glycine, which can damage the very tissue it tries to protect from the monopolar electrical current, which results in “TUR Syndrome”; hence, the former version of TURP is preferred and more commonly utilized.
  • Bipolar TURP: This is a newer technique; instead of a monopolar current, it uses a bipolar current to remove tissue.  This allows for irrigation with a saline solution and removes any need for a grounding pad; therefore, the aforementioned “TUR Syndrome” is prevented, and other complications are reduced.  Bipolar TURP isn’t subject to the same time constraints as Conventional (monopolar) TURP surgeries.
  • Laser Prostate Surgery: Yet another method of prostatectomy uses a laser’s energy to remove the tissue of the prostate gland.  A fiber optic cable is inserted through the urethra, and transmits high powered lasers to vaporize and adenoma.  The advantage of using laser energy instead of electrosurgical currents is that there is less blood loss, no TUR Syndrome risk, the fact that larger prostate glands can be treated, and patients being treated with anti-coagulants for other issues can be helped with laser prostate surgery.

This article has summarized a few of the options for prostatectomy.  Be sure to speak with your urologist, MD or other specialist about all of your choices before making up your mind.  For relatively benign prostate problems, you may consider natural alternatives that help the prostate perform at its best.